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Goodall Medwyn: Ancient Nazca Inca...

LOPPUUNMYYTY

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"This album, is pure joy, and inspired from start till finish. May it, touch. your day and fill you with energy."
– Medwyn Goodall

ANCIENT NAZCA: Haunting melodies, inspired by the Inca mysteries. Performed on pan pipes, guitars, and many other native instruments.

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Goodall Medwyn: Nazca, Land of the Incas

LOPPUUNMYYTY

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"My music is written with the greatest respect for the people of the Andes, their music and their culture."
– Medwyn Goodall

NAZCA: lively and slightly mysterious instrumental music for panpipes, skin drums, guitars and many other instruments. Inspired by the snow, ice, jungle, and desert of the world's longest mountain range.

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Inkuyo: Ancient Sun

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1 Sol de Primavera (Spring Sunshine) 4'21" Composed by Gonzalo Vargas Rhythm: Taquirari - Bolivia

The Taquirari is a rhythm that originated in the tropical lower land areas of Bolivia-specifically Beni, Pando and Santa Cruz. Many Spanish missions were also established in these same regions. As a result of the intermixing of Bolivian and Spanish cultures and musical traditions, the Taquirari was born. During festive occasions, the women wear brightly colored costumes, with elaborately designed flower headsets and dance to the sensual and cadent tempo played all clay.

2 Cueca Desconocida 3'24" Traditional Rhythm: Cueca - Bolivia

The Cueca is a courtship dance that emerged during colonial times in the countries of Bolivia, Chile, Argentina and Peru. Cueca, known as Marinera in Peru and Zamba in Argentina is also recognized as the national dance of Chile. Today, this romantic and sensual rhythm is widely popular with the mestizos-criollos-who settle in the large modern cities of these Andean countries. -

3 Rumbo Al Socavon 3'25" (on the Way to Socavon) Traditional Rhythm: Morenada - Bolivia

At Carnaval 0f Oruro, one 0f the largest festivals held in Bolivia, there is a very popular and spectacular dance called the Morenada. This dance is characterized by the intricate and brightly colored costumes worn by the male dancers. These costumes, which weigh between 100-140 pounds, require the men t0 dance slowly up the hill. This festival is a two-fold celebration which worships not only the Virgin 0f El Socavon (mine), but also the spirits that reign in the depths 0f the mines. The rhythm of the Morenada is played repetitiously as the dancers wind their way up to the chapel.

4 Urpilita (Little Dove) 4'05" Composed by Gonzalo Vargas Rhythm: Huayno - Bolivia

Urpilita is a contemporary composition using the old language of the Incas called Quechua or Runa Simi. In fact, the lyrics were taken from an old Quechua poem compiled by Jesus Lara.

Urpilitay kapuarga Waqajliy wagaysiwarqa Songnetunta jok'okuspa Wagayniyta pichawarga I had a little dove When I cried, she cried loo Her heart over flowing She wiped rny fears away Tarata jarka painpapi Iskay quinza shacha's lian Si mama ganllachu kanki Ashka rnnnasquelasniyga In the Tarala jarka lice plains There are two and three frees It isn't only you Many my lovers are

5 Sol Milenario (Ancient Sun) 4'15" Composed by Gonzalo Vargas Rhythm: Chuntunqui - Bolivia

For thousands of years, cultures around the world worshipped the element so vital to lifethe sun. During pre-Inca and Inca civilization, TataInti, (Sun God), was the most important of the many gods to worship. The Incas considered themselves to be the direct descendants of TataInti and called themselves, Sons of Inti. Consequently, they dedicated their lives to the sun god, by holding special religious ceremonies and festivals year round. The Festival of IntiRaymi was the grandest and most important event of the entire Inca empire. Pilgrims from the farthest corners of the empire traveled to Cuzco for this celebration showing their collective spiritual devotion.

6 Cacharpaya (Farewell) 2'57" Composed by Gonzalo Vargas Rhythm: Huayno - Bolivia

The popular Cacharpaya Huaynos are usually played on the final day of the festival of Cacharpaya. One of the oldest dance forms of the Andes, Huayno is a social dance and is popular throughout the valleys and highlands of this region.

7 Ayawasca 3'58" Traditional Rhythm: Yaravi-Huayno

Ayawasca is a powerful hallucinogenic drug used by the Incas whilst performing some of their sacred rituals and ceremonies. This song has two rhythm sections. The first section, a Yaravi , is a slow and sad melody that is usually accompanied by lyrics in the native language, Quechua. Previously known as Jarawi, (pronounced ha-ra-we), Yaravi is probably one of the oldest musical styles in existence and was used by the Incas to pass down unwritten stories from generations to generations. The second section is a Huayno. Written in this energetic format, this traditional Huayno breaks the spell of the sad Yaravi.

8 Llanuras (Plains) 341" Composed by Gonzalo Vargas Rhythm: Carnaval - Bolivia

This is a contemporary tune in the rhythm of carnaval. Originating from Santa Cruz, Bolivia, this type of music is normally played with string instruments and brass bands in festivals and celebrations. This lively music became popular in the valleys and highlands, and was arranged for pan flutes and charangos, traditionally used by urban bands.

9 Raices (Roots) 3'06" Composed by Gonzalo Vargas Rhythm: Kantu - Bolivia

When the Spanish conquerors arrived in the Andes, they found orchestras of pan flutes accompanied by wankaras (drums) playing beautiful melodies. As the Spanish associated much of this music with native religions and the worshipping of native gods, they attempted to suppress it. Fortunately, they were only partly successful as this ancient music survived nearly unchanged in the more remote areas of the country. (This is a contemporary composition performed in the traditional way)

10 Mi Santa Cruz (My Santa Cruz) 3'26" Composed by Zusano Azogue Rhythm: Taquirari - Bolivia

Located in the foothills of the Andes, Quillacollo is 400 miles to the west of Santa Cruz. Many residents from Santa Cruz make pilgrimages to Quillacollo during festival time. Amongst these people are musicians and dancers ready to perform new Taquirari and carnaval music for the local residents. This is the case of this Taquirari, which still rings in my ears as a child growing up in Quillacollo.

11 Añoranzas (Yearnings) 4'36" Composed by Gonzalo Vargas Rhythm: Kaluyo - Bolivia

Along the borders of the Andes mountains and the Amazon jungles, towns flourished with an interesting mix of people consisting of the Collas (people from the highlands) and the Cambas (people from the lower lands). The Collas and Combas have distinctive differences in their facial features, customs, food, and their music.

Vallegrande, which borders this area, is the birthplace of a popular style of music called, Kaluyo. With a similar rhythm as the Huayno, the Katuyo tempo is slower and emanates a sad feeling, capturing the Cotlas and Combas yearning for their highlands and rain forest.

12 Peregrino (Pilgrim) 528" Composed by Gonzalo Vargas Rhythm: Huayno - Bolivia

This song was composed in the mid-seventies as part of a musical poem. It speaks about the exodus of natives departing their remote villages, and arriving in large cities for the hope of a better life. What these natives experience, however, is segregation, racism and rejection.

Down on their tuck, these natives continue to wander from town to town, and eventually return to their village. Although they are penniless, their heart and spirit are unbroken and they are happy to return to their homeland.

The first half of this song is performed in a traditional ritual dance called Choquelas. This dance is performed during the harvest season. The second half is played in a more contemporary style, which is a blend of pan flutes and strings. At the end of this song, the tempo accelerates signifying the happiness of the natives returning to their villages.

13 Camba Cusa 4'04" Traditionat Rhythm: San Juanito - Ecuador

The San Juanito is one type of music most popular in Ecuador. It is performed widely during the San Juan Festival, which is also known as The Winter Equinox Festival. Some San Juanitos are performed with the bandurria (a small fifteen string guitar), or the rondador (Ecuadorean pan flute), as the lead instrument. This particular San Juanito, however, is arranged for two Bolivian pan flutes and a bandurria which are played simultaneously

14 Corazon Herido (Wounded Heart) 4' 14" Composed by Gonzalo Vargas Rhythm: Motivo - Bolivia

The largest of the family of pan pipes, Chiris, are utilized in this song. These pan pipes are 4'12 feet tong, and although these flutes are usually accompanied by drums, it was not until the late sixties that these pan pipes were being used together with string instruments.

15 Danza de la Lluvia (Rain Dance) 4'22" Composed by Gonzalo Vargas Rhythm: Kantu - Bolivia

It is known that the Pre-Inca and Inca civilizations worshipped the natural elements as gods. They worshipped Tata-Inti (Father Sun), Pachamama (Mother Earth), and Illapa (God of Lighting), to name a few The Incas made sacrificial offerings so that the gods would bring rain during times of drought. Today, in the valleys and highlands of the Andes, communities still perform special ceremonies to the Wakas (Gods) by repeating the rituals their ancestors have performed for centuries.

Total Time 59'44"

Gonzalo Vargas: quena, quenacho, sikus, antara

Enrique Coria: guitar, tiple (courtesy of Acoustic Disc)

Salomon Perez: charango, bandurria, drums, vocals

Guest Artists:

Jim Kerwin: acoustic bass (tracks t, 8, to - courtesy of Acoustic Disc) and Rogelio Rangel: siku (track 9)

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Inkuyo: Art from Sacred Landscape

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Although the Andes mountains, once known to be rich in gold and silver, were robbed centuries ago of their precious metals by intruders from other continents, the true riches of the Andes remain with its people. This treasure of the Andes lies not in its mountains of gold and silver, but in its folklore and history. This wealth of traditions, rituals, and music dates back thousands of years to the mysterious civilization of the Collos of Tiawanaku, and the highly advanced civilization of the Incas. The tribes that lived within the proud, majestic mountains of Tawantinsuyo were once united under many centuries of Inca rule, before they fell under the rule of the Spaniards in the 16th century. (Today, these areas are known as Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Northern Chile, Northern Argentina, and Southern Colombia.)

Several centuries have passed since the last Inca ruled, but the descendants of this great culture, the Quechua (Inca) and the Aymara (Collo) Indians, still have the Incan spirit embedded deeply in their hearts. They continue to preserve and practice the ways of their ancestors, celebrating the same festivals with the songs and fervor they have possessed since before the time of the Incan empire.

The Incas used music as a medium to transmit their history. As they had no written language, they recounted events and stories through their music. Owing to this tradition, the Incas not only were able to preserve their history, but also the music and instruments that were played in their festivals. To this day, music is a dominant force in their daily lives. Simple daily tasks are played out in music: for cutting one's hair for the first time, or planting and harvesting the yearly crops, there is a unique instrument and rhythm created expressly for each event. From the penetrating sadness of a slow Yaravi sung to an absent lover to the lively, bright Carnavals played in celebration of the harvesting season, this ethereal music reflects the beauty and harmony of daily life in the Andes.

THE MUSICIANS

Gonzalo Vargas was born in Tapajkari, Bolivia, a remote Andean village from which he inherited his traditional musical skills, and a desire to perform, study, and teach his ancestral music. In Bolivia, Gonzalo played with many musical groups, the most notable being KHANATA, a group that contributed immeasurably to the renaissance and compilation of Bolivian folk music. Gonzalo was also one of the founders of SUKAY which played a key role in introducing Andean music to the U.S. and Canada. His compositions are played and recorded throughout South America, Europe, and the U.S., and he is recognized internationally for his skill in playing panpipes and South American flutes.

Pamela Darington is a fifth generation Californian. She became involved in Andean music in college where she was studying South American culture and language. In 1983, she joined with Vargas to form the group TAKISUN, which performed in festivals, pehas, and cultural events in the Bay Area. She was a member of the group KUSKA, and is a founding member of INKUYO.

Jorge Tapia was born in Los Andes, Chile, but has been living in the U.S. in exile since he was 16. Jorge became involved in music as a way of remaining close to his Chilean roots and culture. He joined his first group, CANTO LIBRE, at 18. Later, with other children of Chilean refugees, he formed the group KAMANCHAKA, which strives to make the world aware of the plight of the Chilean people.

Omar Sepulveda was born in Santiago, Chile. Due to the work of Chilean folk musicians like Violeta Parra and Victor Jara, and groups such as INTI ILLIMANI, and QUILA PAYUN, who compiled and brought to the public Chilean and Latin American folk music, he became interested in Andean music. After the military coup in Chile in 1973, his family was exiled and came to California where he decided to study and perform Andean music. He has performed with VENCEREMOS, KAMANCHAKA, and SUKAY before joining INKUYO in September, 1988.

THE INSTRUMENTS

THE FLUTHS

The Quena A resonant cane flute, it is one of the oldest Andean instruments. The quena is a notched flute with seven fingerholes. Today, it is made of bamboo; traditionally, it was constructed of stone, clay, or the wing bones of the condor.

The Siku or Zampona (panpipe) The siku is made of several bamboo tubes of various sizes tied together in two rows to create a diatonic scale. Traditionally one instrument is played by two people with each half of the instrument having only one half of the scale. Sikus come in various sizes and keys. The smallest is around four inches long, while the largest is approximately four and one half feet long. In Incan times, a man's position was determined by his ability to play the siku. The best players were considered heroes.

The Suri Sicuris Also of the panpipe family, the sari sicuri has the same tuning as the siku. Like the siku, it is made of various types of bamboo. The main difference between the sari sicuri and the siku is that the sari sieuri carries all of the pipes of the scale in one row; the second row is for resonance only. In certain areas of the Andes, the sari sicuris are made with a pentatonic scale.

The Antara The antara is built in the same fashion as the sicuri and is always in the pentatonic scale (5 notes to the octave).

The Rondador The rondador is tuned in the pentatonic scale. Each note of the scale is followed by its lower third allowing the musician to play the melody and its harmony when the two adjacent pipes are blown simultaneously.

PERCUSSION AND STRINGED INSTRUMENTS

Drums and rattles in several sizes and shapes are used in Andean music, some of them dating back several thousand years. Others are new instruments created or adapted to Andean music by European influence. There are several stringed instruments used in Andean music such as the guitar, violin, tiple, harp, and charango. The charango is the only stringed instrument native to South America.

The Wancara A large, round drum with goat skins stretched across both sides. It has a deep bass sound. It is most commonly played in sikureadas where large groups play sikus and drums together.

The Bombo Another Andean drum, the bombo comes in several sizes. These drums are made from hollowed tree trunks with animal skins stretched across each end.

The Caja Much smaller than the bombo, they are also made from hollowed tree trunks with animal skins stretched across each end. Across one side of the caja is stretched a piece of string that has small slivers of wood attached to it to create the sound of a snare drum.

The Chullus A woven ribbon with several goat hooves tied onto it. When shaken, it suggests the sound of wind and falling rain.

The Charango The only stringed instrument native to the Andes began appearing in the 18th century between Bolivia and Peru. It was fashioned after the Spanish guitar. It has ten strings and is made out of armadillo shells or wood. Its small size made it simple for shepherds to carry the instrument with them while herding their llamas.

The Guitar, Violin, Harp, and Tiple Although these instruments are not native to the Andes, their introduction brought about the creation of new styles and rhythms in Andean music.

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Inkuyo: Double-Headed Serpent

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The serpent is a recurrent figure in religious beliefs, ceremonies, activities, and legends. The folktales and legends that have surrounded it in practically every culture have combined to produce religous overtones in many different parts of the world. While in many religions the snake is primarily a symbol, direct worship of the snake as a god-like creature (not as an indirect representation) is not uncommon. Python worshippers are found in Africa, and the cobra cults of India are well known. Quetzalcoatl was the feathered serpent of the Aztecs. The serpent is a symbol for the snake-handling Protestant sects of the United States, the snake dancers of the Hopi Indian, and perhaps the Burmese snake charmers, who end their ceremonies with a kiss on the top of a cobra's head. Handling of snakes is done both as a gesture of belief and faith in the power of the gods and as an act of defiance of the same power.

Double-headed serpents and birds, and composite beings with animal, avian, reptilian or invertebrate features persist into later Andean arts. As with griffins and unicorns, these composite creatures were surrounded by lore and beliefs that made the iconography intelligible to the general populace, and preceramic motifs were the building blocks of symbolic communication that came to dominate the later corporate styles.

1. Traditiones Andinas (Andean Traditions) 3' 19" By Gonzalo Vargas, Rhythm: Huayno The huayno is one of the oldest and still most popular rhythms in Peru, Bolivia, and the northern parts of Argentina and Chile. The huayno is played using flutes and drums, and is loved because of the variety of moods it expresses=happy, melancholy, and even sorrowful. Although there is no knowledge of specific songs that date back to the pre-Incan era, this traditional rhythm can be linked to the pre-Columbian period.

When the Spanish missionaries came to convert the Andean people, they believed that the music and the instruments of the Incas were a form of paganism and forbade their use. The missionaries were unsuccessful in eradicating the native Incan music. The Incas kept their own music and rhythms alive by adapting them to more acceptable European stringed instruments. After the Spanish yoke was thrown off and South America began developing its new face, the blending of preColumbian and European instruments began to occur. The huayno and other rhythms began to be used with native flutes playing the melody accompanied by stringed instruments as it is done today.

2. Callejon de las Viudas (Widow's Alley) 4'15" By Omar Sepulveda Rhythm: Danzante

Paine is a Campesino village a few kilometers from Santiago, Chile. It was in this village, at the beginning of General Pinochet's brutal dictatorship, that the husbands and sons of many village women were detained by soldiers-never to be seen again. One area became known as "Widow's Alley" because of the vast number of men missing.

3. Kena-Taki (Singing Flute) 4'28" By Gonzalo Vargas Rhythm: Trote

The kena was an important instrument to the llama herders of the Andes for two reasons. First, it was the first companion of young boys going to the mountains with their llama flock. Second, it was used by the llama herders in their special kena songs and rituals to worhip "Urcuchillay", a varicolored llama buck, who they believed watched over the llamas' growth and reproduction cycle. The kena was originally fashioned from clay or animal bones and is one of the oldest instruments found in the Americas. The rhythm of this song, Trote, is a contemporary rhythm.

4. Seleccion de Huaynitos (Selection of Huaynos) 3'07" Traditional Rhythm: Huayno

A selection of three traditional Peruvian huaynos. Not long after Pizarro's discovery of the kingdom of the Incas, word spread throughout Europe of a new land that contained a great quantity of gold, silver, and other rich metals. People from all over Europe came to the Andes bringing with them their own musical instruments and traditions. These new instruments were eventually incorporated into Andean music. Today, the traditional Peruvian huaynos are often heard being played on the violin, harp, mandolin, and harmonica.

5. Sikureada (Song of Sikus) 4'44" Traditional Rhythm: Sikureada

Traditional Andean music is often an expression of the reality of the daily life of the inhabitants. One type of music that can most accurately describe the communal way of life of this culture is the Sikureada. Sikureadas are traditionally performed by two musicians on the siku (panpipe), sharing the instrument. The siku has two parts, each one a banded row of bamboo tubes containing a different set of alternating notes of the diatonic scale. Each musician plays a part of the melody-those notes which fall on his half of the instrument. Sikureadas are played in large groups accompanied by the drums. This music reflects the collective spirit and closeness of the people, present in most aspects of daily life.

6. Chiquita (Little One) 3'32" Traditional Rhythm: Tonada

Chiquita is a courtship song performed in both Quechua and Spanish. It is performed at the festival of the Virgin Dolores in the village of Tapacari in the Western part of Cochabamba, Bolivia. On the day of the festival, people walk in from the outlying areas of the village playing sikuris or mohcenos. Those who have moved to the cities also return for the festival. They arrive in the back of trucks bringing with them the more contemporary brass bands. Throughout the day, the mix of traditional groups and city bands circle the plaza dancing and singing. In the early evening, as the sun begins to set, the brass bands, the sikuris, and the mohcenos disappear. The only sound left is the strumming of the charango as single, young men begin to play their instruments, each hoping to attract a pretty, young woman. The young women form circles holding hands, dancing, and singing around the charango players. This ritual goes on every evening for three days. At the end of the festival, many newly engaged couples leave together on their horses and donkeys.

7. Chanarcillo 3'54" By Victor Jara Rhythm: Contemporary

In the sixties, young musicians began to join elements of the traditional Andean folk music with contemporary rhythms and ideas, and created a new music known today as Nueva Cancion or the New Latin American Song. In a time when people were not allowed to speak out for fear of repercussion, this music served as a voice to condemn repressive governments and spoke of ending the struggles and suffering of the people. Victor Jara, the aurhor of this song, died at the hands of the Pinochet Regime for daring to voice the sentiments of thousands of Chileans in song.

8. Rosas Tika (Three Roses) 3'52" Traditional Rhythm: Tonada

The charango is the only stringed instrument native to the Andes. Found in Bolivia in the 1700's, it was fashioned after the Spanish vihuela. Today, the charango is associated with courting and love. In certain areas of Peru and Bolivia, it is used almost exclusively by single, young men in courting. Magical rites are performed to enlist supernatural aid in their musical endeavors to capture the heart of their chosen maiden. For example, the "Sirena" is a magical being which is believed to reside in rivers, lakes, and oceans. At sundown, the young men leave their charangos by the edge of the water and retire to somewhere close by where they cannot see the instrument. During the night, the Sirena comes and "tunes" their instrument, giving it the power to captivate women. It is said that anyone that has ever seen the Sirena has gone mad. Accompanied by his friends, the youths pass the night making ritual offerings to the Sirena and drinking chicha. In the morning they return to collect the instrument and find that it now has a beautiful, captivating voice.

9. Albazo de Luna Nueva (Albazo of the Full Moon) 4'26" By Omar Sepulveda Rhythm: Albazo

The Albazo is a rhythm unique to Ecuador. It is traditionally played at dawn on Festival days. Today, it is customary for newlyweds to be awakened, by these melodies the day after the wedding.

10. Caporal (Slave Master) 4' 16" By Gonzalo Vargas Rhythm: Caporal

During Colonial times, the inhabitants of the Andes used dance to rebel against their Spaniard oppressors. Many of today's dances such as the Morenada, Diablada, Doctorcitos, and the Caporal are characterizations of their oppressors. The Caporal was the slave master. In this dance, the dancers dress up in fine silk clothes and dance with a whip imitating the fury of the master. This dance has become very popular in the last 20 years. It is customary for high school students to dance the caporal in large groups during festivals.

11. Winaypaj Sonqoypi (Forever in my Heart) 5'04" By Gonzalo Vargas Rhythm: Huayno

The people of the Andes express various aspects of their life through music, especially the loss of a loved one. This song is written in loving memory of my mother who passed to me the traditions handed down to her by our forefathers, the Quechua (Inca) Indians. Although the surroundings in which she lived pressured her to forego her past and deny her Indian heritage, she overcame the pressure and kept traditional ways-from her form of dress to the veneration of the Pachamama (Mother Earth). Although she happily fulfilled her role in the Catholic Church, she religiously performed the daily rites and rituals to the Pachamama, and on the first Friday of the month she would burn q'oa (incense) and give thanks to the Pachamama as has been the Quechua tradition for centuries.

12. Taquirari Navideno (Christmas Taquirari) 3'30" By Omar Sepulveda Rhythm: Taquirari

The Taquirari is a rhythm that originated in the tropical areas of Bolivia; specifically, Santa Cruz. Although the Taquirari is typically played only on stringed instruments or by a brass band, it is now commonly heard on the flute and in a strings format. Though the Taquirari is of Bolivian origin, the popularity of this music has traveled to the plains and mountain areas and across the borders to Peru and northern Chile.

13. Flor de Zacapu (Flower of Zacapu) 2'45" By Omar Sepulveda Rhythm: Contemporary

"Many are the flowers of our Latin America, but none so beautiful as the flower of Zacapu." In the Andes, it is customary to refer to women as Palomitay (Dove) or as in this song, a beautiful flower.

14. Tushuy 6'24" Traditional Rhythm: Yumbo

Yumbo is a pre-Columbian melody played on the antara. The antara is the oldest panpipe discovered in the Andes. It has a pentatonic scale and all of the pipes are in one row as opposed to the siku which has two halves to the instruments and is tuned on a diatonic scale.

15. Jatarichi 3'25" Traditional Rhythm: San Juanito

The rondador is an instrument unique to Ecuador. Each note of the pentatonic scale is followed by its lower third, allowing the musician to play the melody and the harmony at the same time by blowing the two tubes simultaneously. The San Juanito is the most popular rhythm in Ecuador. It is typically heard during the festival of San Juan which corresponds to Inti Raymi, the festival of the Sun, which for centuries was one of the most important celebrations of the Quechua people.

Total Time: 61'33"

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Inkuyo: Land of the Incas

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Inkuyo: Temple of the Sun

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Inkuyo: Window to the Andes

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